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effects and side effects of drugs

 Nowadays the use of medicines is increasing. Their effect is also immediate, so it is important to use them very carefully. Otherwise, they can also cause harm. Medicines are very useful in curing diseases. Hence should be used exactly as prescribed by the doctor or pharmacist.

Medicines are used to prevent, treat, and maintain normal body functions. Various natural and traditional methods have been used around the world to treat diseases. For example, herbs, trees, plants, animal parts, etc. have been used in the field of medicine for a long time.

These traditional medicinal substances do not have any special side effects on our body, if they are consumed in a prescribed quantity then they are almost safe.

We must remember that there is a fixed maximum amount of medicines that can be given without causing harm. The medicine helps our body to be healthy, it kills microorganisms or stops their production.

Some common side effects of the medicine 

  • Constipation
  • Abdominal pain
  • Skin rash
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomit
  • Dizziness
  • Sleepiness
  • Dry mouth
  • Headache
  • Insomnia
  • High or low heart rate
  • Trouble breathing
  • Allergies
  • Anaphylactic reaction.

Positive effects of the medicine

Medicine has good and bad effects on the body. They produce effects that are beneficial and help to heal.

The therapeutic effect is used to cure diseases. Medicine is used only for this effect. A therapeutic effect is an action against disease-causing micro-organisms. And helps in maintaining the normal function of the body.

The therapeutic effect of a drug is the ability of a drug to restore normal body functions.

Some unwanted side effects of the drug

Along with the therapeutic effects, there are also some undesirable side effects of the drug. But some have side effects on the body. they are harmful

For example, nausea, vomiting, etc. after taking the pill.

The effect of allergy, the drug is not forgiving or there is an adverse effect of anything contained in the medicine. If the same drug is given to a person with a drug allergy, then the reactions are seen in him out of expectation.

Sometimes it can even be life-threatening, so the drug cannot be given to a person with known allergic effects.

Effects of long term use of the drug

The effect of the drug depends on many factors. These factors are taken into account while prescribing the medicine.

Drug dosage 

The dosage of medicines is determined by looking at age, gender, weight, disease condition, etc. To produce the maximum therapeutic effect of drugs in a particular patient with the lowest possible dosage.

The dosage of the drug cannot be fixed strictly, as there are too many factors, which affect the dosage. like
  • patient's age
  • gender
  • From which route the medicine is being given etc.

We can say that the dosage of medicine is the amount of medicine that is sufficient but not too much.

Age and body weight

The effect of the medicine is more in old people and children, so they are given less amount of medicine.

Generally, the dose of an adult person is determined on the basis of 70 kg weight.


Women generally require a lower dose than men. Many drugs have adverse effects during pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding. At this time the medicine should be given very carefully.

Strong purgative stomach cleanser should not be given during menstruation and pregnancy. Because it stimulates uterine contractions, which can lead to miscarriage.

Along with this, anesthetic gases, barbiturates, narcotics, and nonnarcotic analgesic drugs should be avoided during pregnancy, lactating mother.

Medicines such as antihistamines, morphine, and tetracycline should not be given to a lactating mother. Because some amounts of these drugs are excreted in the milk, which can be harmful to the breastfed baby.

Route of drug administration

The dosage of the medicine varies according to the route of administration. For example, the drug given by intravenous injection is given in small doses. Because it is given directly into the bloodstream or muscles.

The effect of the medicine is more on an empty stomach. The medicine is rapidly absorbed on an empty stomach. Therefore vitamin E, iron, cod-liver oil, etc. are given after meals.

Presence  of  disease 

Medicines are more effective in diseased conditions than in normal. For example, the amount of antipyretic drug that reduces fever is more effective in the condition of fever than in the general condition.

Environmental factors

The effect of sleeping medicine is greater during the night than during the day. Therefore the dosage during the daytime is much higher than at night.

Emotional factor

A patient's faith in the doctor is an important factor in increasing drug effects.

Drug storage

When a drug is used repeatedly over a long period of time depending on its nature, it can build up unexpectedly in the body to produce toxic symptoms. These are called cumulative effects.

The reason for this is slow excretion, defective degradation, unexpected rapid absorption of the drug. When 2 or more drugs are used in combination, their effect either increases or decreases.


When a drug reduces or eliminates its effect in contrast to the action of another drug, it is called antagonism.

Like milk of magnesia is given in acid poisoning. One drug is acidic and the other drug is alkaline, which neutralizes each other's effects.

Habit and addiction

When repeated use of a drug leads to psychological dependence rather than compulsion, the condition is called habituation. For example, the use of tea, coffee, tobacco, etc.

 Addiction is a state of mental and physical drug dependence. Continuous use of alcohol, opium, cocaine, heroin, morphine, pethidine leads to addiction.

Drug addicts have a close relationship with drugs. They become its slaves. If people with an addiction to the drug are unable to obtain it, their body develops withdrawal symptoms, which can be severe. May also cause death.

Drugs that lead to addiction should be prescribed very carefully.


Not all individuals react the same way to the same drug because of the same individual sensitivity, some may produce an unusual reaction to the drug.

This is called idiosyncrasy, as a few milligrams of aspirin can cause gastric bleeding.


An allergic reaction to a medicine is called hypersensitivity. It is caused by the frequent or indiscriminate use of drugs such as antibiotics, vitamins, and protein substances.

Once a person has become sensitized, even a single dose of the drug will cause an allergic reaction.


When the prescribed normal dose of a drug is not able to give its therapeutic effect, it is called tolerance.

Just as a smoker is tolerant of nicotine, an alcoholic is tolerant of alcohol. Large dosa is required in this condition.


It is observed in some drugs that when they are used repeatedly at very short intervals the cell receptors are blocked and the pharmacological response to that particular drug is reduced.

Due to which the effect of that medicine also decreases.

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