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Female reproductive organs and their functions

At the time of birth, the female reproductive system is immature. and develops maturity at puberty. the female reproductive system is more complex than the male reproductive system.

The female reproductive system consists of the following organs. Ovaries, Oviducts (fallopian tubes), Uterus and, Vagina.

female reproductive organs

  • Ovaries
  • Oviducts (fallopian tubes)
  • Uterus and
  • Vagina


The woman has two ovaries. it is oval shape organs and located insides of the abdominal cavity and near the kidney. It is the primary reproductive organs in the female. 

Each ovary is composed of a thousand follicles (a kind of unripe eggs or ova). At puberty these follicles mature and ready for fertilization. 

ovaries make female sex cells (gametes) it is called ova or eggs and Makes female sex hormones that are Oestrogen and Progesterone.

The function of ovaries

  • Makes female sex cells (gametes) or eggs or ova
  • Make female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone
  • Those hormones play an essential role in the development of girls

Oviduct or fallopian tube

Just above the ovaries are the tubes called Oviducts (fallopian tubes). It is not directly connected to the ovaries. It is connected through funnel-shaped openings that cover the ovaries. 

The Ovum(egg) released by an ovary goes into the Oviduct (fallopian tube) through its funnel-shaped opening. fertilization of the egg takes place here.

The functions of the oviduct

transport male gamete (sperm) to female gametes (ova).
provides a favorable environment for fertilization.
carry the egg to the uterus.

Uterus (Womb)

The 2 ovaries connected bag-like organs called the uterus(womb). The uterus is a hollow muscular organ located in the pelvis between the bladder and rectum. 

The growth and development of a fertilized egg take place in the uterus. The uterus is also known as the womb.

Function of uterus

  • The uterus prepares itself for a fertilized egg every month
  • The growth and development of the baby occur in the uterus

Birth canal

The uterus is connected through a narrow opening called the cervix to another tube called the vagina which opens to the outside of the body. It is also called the birth canal because it is through this passage that the baby is born.

hormones in the female reproductive system and their functions

ovaries secrete two female sex hormones. Oestrogen and Progesterone. They controlled and developed female sex organs. such as voice, soft skin, breast. and Controlled and developed of the uterus.

where fertilization occurs in the female reproductive system

The Ovum(egg) released by an ovary. then it's moving into the Oviduct (fallopian tube). fertilization of the egg takes place here. 

Internal fertilization occurs in humans. The sperms (male gametes) made in the testes of man. The millions of sperms are released are into the vagina at once.

The sperms are very active and moving. They move up through the cervix into the uterus and then pass into the oviduct(fallopian tube). 

one of the oviducts contains an ovum(egg cell) released by the ovary during ovulation. Only one sperm fuses with the ovum in the fallopian tube to form a zygote. This is called fertilization.

Stages of fertilization

The main stages of fertilization in humans are as follows. Sperm and eggs are fertilized in the oviduct and form a zygote. The zygote divides rapidly and forms a hollow sphere of hundreds of cells, called an embryo, which slowly moves into the uterus. then develops a child in the mother's uterus.

Ovulation- The process of releasing the ovum from the ovary is known as ovulation.

Fallopian tube- after releasing, the ovum (from the ovary) moves into the oviduct (fallopian tube)

Male sperm is ejaculation during copulation. Travel through a narrow opening called the cervix into the uterus and then the oviduct.

A single sperm fuses with the ovum in the oviduct and fertilization takes place. The fertilized ovum continues its journey down the oviduct, into the uterus.

The fertilized ovum implant itself into the uterus wall and develops into a Zygote.

Development of Zygote

A zygote is formed by the fusion of male and female gametes. It is the beginning of the formation of the baby. It is a single cell.

Development of Embryo

After fertilized Ovum(egg), a Zygote is formed. The zygote divides rapidly by mitosis and moves slowly in the oviduct and forms a hollow ball of hundreds of cells. This is now called an embryo. sinks into the soft and thick lining of the uterus and get embedded in is called implantation.

An embryo is formed by the cell division of a zygote. It is an unborn baby in the uterus in the early stages of development (up to 8 weeks after fertilization).it is multicellular.


A fetus is formed by an is an unborn baby in the uterus in the later stage of development(after 8 weeks till birth).

A fetus's body features of developing babies such as hands, legs, eyes, mouth, and ears, etc.

What is Gestation?

The average gestation period in humans is about 9 months. Birth begins when the muscles in the walls of the uterus start to contract rhythmically. The rhythmic contraction of the uterus muscles gradually pushes the baby out of the mother's body through the vagina.

What is Placenta?

After implantation, a disc-like tissue develops between the uterus wall and embryo, which is called the placenta. The fetus is connected to the placenta in the mother's body through the umbilical cord through the placenta all the requirements of the developing fetus are met through's mother body.

Also, read 👉 The male reproductive system

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