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Complete list of antibiotics in India

Introduction of antibiotics 💊💉

A substance that inhibits the growth of microorganisms or kills them and causes no harm to the host cell called an antimicrobial agent or antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial agent is of, natural, semi-synthetic, or synthetic origin. 

Alexander Fleming was a British investigator who discovered penicillin.  In 1928 Fleming describe the enzyme lysozyme. He observed that the Petri dish culture of staphylococci had become contaminated with green mold and that the bacteria were disappearing as the mold grew over the plate. The mold isolated was identified as Penicillium and found that the broth contained an active principle with antibacterial characters. 

Rene Dubos in 1939 indicated that soil bacteria could produce anti-bacterial chemicals like Fleming's penicillin. a group of Oxford University, led by British pathologist, Howard Florey and German biochemist, Ernst Boris Chain, reisolated penicillin and carried out careful trials with the highly purified samples. American pharmaceutical companies developed technology for the large-scale production of penicillin. 

Fleming, Florey, and Chain received Nobel Prize in 1945 for the development and discovery of penicillin. penicillin is the first antibiotic.

What is chemotherapy:

Without damaging the host cells, chemical compounds or drugs uses for the treatment of infectious diseases known as chemotherapy.

The main types of antimicrobial drugs

Antibiotics are chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, having the properties of inhibiting the growth or destroying the microorganism.

Antibacterial agents, It is synthesized in the laboratory.

Semisynthetic antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents have a chemical structure is derived from the microbial source but its chemical structure is then modified by attaching different chemical moieties.

Explain the mode of action of antimicrobial drugs

 Bacteriostatic Bactericidal Fungistatic Fungicidal
Arrest the growth and replication
of the bacteria thus break the spread of infection. or the drugs
which prevent the growth of microorganisms called
 The bactericidal drug, kill, or irreversible damage the multiplying bacteria. or the
drugs that destroy the microorganisms are called bactericidal drugs.
 Arrest the growth and replication
of the fungi thus break the spread of infection
The fungicidal drug, kill, or irreversible damage the multiplying fungi.

Mechanism of action of antibiotics drugs: Antibiotics drugs act as.

 Inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis, eg. → PenicillinsCephalosporins Monobactams Carbapenems
 Alter of cell membrane integrity, eg.→ PolymixinsAmphotericin-B Azoles Chlorhexidine
 Inhibit of ribosome protein synthesis, eg.→ AminoglycosidesTetracyclines Macrolides Clindamycin
 Suppression of DNA synthesis, eg.→ SulfonamidesTrimethoprim

Types of antimicrobial drugs Spectrum 💊

According to the spectrum of activity, antimicrobial drugs are grouped as,
  1. Narrow spectrum drugs,
  2. Broad-spectrum drugs,
  3. Extended-spectrum drugs.

Narrow spectrum-  It is selectively effective either on gram+ve or gram - ve bacteria or certain fungi, yeast, or active against a limited group of pathogens are called narrow-spectrum antimicrobial drugs. such as benzylpenicillin, erythromycin, vancomycin.

Broad-spectrum - It is effective in numerous pathogens such as gram +ve bacteria, gram - ve bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, or a wide range of pathogens, which are called broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs. Like tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, amoxicillin.

Extended-spectrum drugs - They are effective against gram-positive organisms and some gram-negative pathogens.

👉 Antibiotics are effective against gram-positive bacteria such as penicillin, ampicillin, etc.

👉 Antibiotics are effective against gram-negative bacteria such as streptomycin, gentamicin, etc.

👉 Antibiotics are effective against both gram +ve and gram-negative bacteria, etc.


Discovered → Alexander Fleming 1929.

Origin → mold Penicillium notatum and Penicillium chrysogenum.

MOA → bactericidal.

Adverse effects → Anaphylactic shock, idiosyncrasy, allergy reaction.

Uses → Upper respiratory infection, Urinary tract infection, rheumatic fever

 Classification Penicillin drugs
 Natural penicillinPenicillin- G (Benzyl Penicillin)
 Broad-spectrum penicillinAmpicillin, Amoxycillin, Ampicillin with Sulbactam Sodium

Penicillinase resistant penicillin Cloxacillin
 Penicillin active against pseudomonasCarbenicillin.

Aminoglycosides antibiotics

Aminoglycosides are derived from the species of Streptomycin. Gentamicin is the first drug to be given for infections by gram-negative bacteria. Neomycin is now used as topical antibiotics for eye bacterial conjunctivitis or gram-negative infection.

Uses of aminoglycosides antibiotics drug:
 It is very effective against gram-negative bacteria. 
  • Bacteraemias,
  • Septicaemias,
  • Respiratory tract infection,
  • Bone and joint infection,
  • CNS,
  • Skin and soft tissue infection,
  • intraabdominal infection,
  • Burns,
  • Postoperative infection.

 Aminoglycosides Drugs
 Amikacin, Tobramycin sulfate
 Neomycin, sisomicin,
 Tobramycin Streptomycin

Carbacephems antibiotics



Carbapenem is a synthetic Beta-Lactum antibiotic. It is given by injection (by parenteral route) into the body. for uses of,
  • Pneumonia,
  • Intra-abdominal infection,
  • Gynecological infection,
  • Skin infection.
  • Meningitis,
  • Septicemia
  • Febrile neutropenia.

 Carbapenem Drugs
 Meropenem Trihydrate Faropenem,
 Imipenem with Cilastatin

Cephalosporins antibiotics

Discover → In 1960.

Isolated → fungus, Cephalosporinium acremonium (Cephalosporins), and Streptomyces lactamdurans (cefamycin).

Cephalosporium. Now many semi-synthetic drugs are developed from it. 

cephalosporins are an alternative to penicillin. 

  • Staphylococcal boils or wounds, 
  • Streptococci,
  • Bacterial pneumonia,
  • Urinary tract infections by gram-negative bacteria.

 Classification Cefalosporin drugs
 1st generation cefalosporin Cefalexin, Cefadroxil,Cefradine,  Cefazolin,
 2nd generation cefalosporin Cefaclor, Cefuroxime. Cefprozil. Cefotetan, Cefamandole, Cefoxitin
 3rd generation cefalosporin  Cefixime, Cefpodoxime, Ceftibuten,   Cefdinir, Cefditoren, Ceftolozane, Cefoperazone, Ceftriaxone,  Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Ceftizoxime.
 4th generation cefalosporin Cefepime, Cefpirome, Cefozopran
 5th generation cefalosporin Ceftaroline, Ceftobiorole.

Combination with other medicine

Cephalosporins w/β- lactamase inhibitors:
  • Ceftazidime + Avibactam,
  • Ceftolozane + Tazobatam,
  • Cefoperazone + Sulbatam,
  • Cefoperazone + Tazobactam,
  • Ceftrixone + Sulbactam,
  • cefotaxime + sulbactam,
  • Cefuroxime + Clavulanic acid,
  • Cefixime  + Clavulanic acid,
  • Ceftazidime + Tazobactam,
  • Ceftrixone + Tazobactam.

Chloramphenicol antibiotics

Chloramphenicol is the first broad-spectrum antibiotic. It was isolated in 1947 by Ehrlich, Burkholder, and Gotlieb. It inhibits a wide variety of Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. And rickettsiae and fungi. it inhibits protein synthesis at the 50S ribosomal level. it is a bacteriostatic drug.

  1. Typhoid fever,
  2. Meningitis,
  3. Urinary tract infection,
  4. ENT infection,
  5. intracranial bacteria infection.
  • Chloramphenicol.

Ketolides antibiotics 

Ketolides approved for the first time in 2004. telithromycin is used for the treatment of bronchitis, sinusitis, and pharyngitis.
  • Telithromycin

Lincosamides antibiotics

it is used in treating a serious infection like a liver abscess, lung bases, bone, and joint infection.
  • Lincomycin,
  • Clindamycin.

Oxazolidinones antibiotics

It is an antibiotic medicine, used when there is a bacterial infection in the body. This antibiotic medicine is given in the case of the following disease,

Uses of Oxazolidinones
  • Pneumonia infection,
  • Skin infection,
  • febrile neutropenia septicemia,
  • Endocarditis,
  • Osteomyelitis surgical prophylaxis.

Oxazolidinones drugs:

  1. Linezolid,
  2. Tedizolid,
  3. Radezolide,
  4. Torezolide.

Macrolides antibiotics

macrolides drugs are a Bacteriostatic and broad spectrum of activity. it is used against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. macrolides inhibit the protein synthesis of the bacteria.  it is used.

Uses of Macrolides drugs:
  • Upper respiratory tract infection,
  • Acute  pneumonia,
  • Vaginitis infection,
  • wound and burn infection,
  • Infected eczema,
  • Acne vulgaris,
  • Skin infection.

 macrolides drugs
 Azithromycin, Clarithromycin,
 Roxithromycin, Polymyxin B
 Aztreonam Telithromycin
 Teicoplanin Vancomycin
 Colistimethate Erythromycin,
 Spiramycin. Colistin
 Lincomycin Clindamycin

Glycylcyclines antibiotics

Tigecycline is the new glycylcycline antibiotic, approved by the FDA in June 2005. It is broad-spectrum antibiotics. it is effective against gram-positive, gram-negative, and multidrug-resistant pathogens. it is effective for the treatment of complicated skin infection and intra-abdominal infection.
  • Tigecycline

Macrocyclic antibiotics:

  • Fidaxomicin.


MOA → Bacterial cell wall synthesis drug. bacteriocidal.

glycopeptides drugs
  • Dalbavancin
  • Oritavancin,
  • Teicoplanin
  • Telavancin,
  • Vancomycin.


  • Aztreonam.
  • Nitrofurantoin:
  • Nitrofurantoin.


  • Flomoxef,
  • Latamoxef.

Sulphonamides Antimicrobial drug

Structure →  analogs of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA.

MOA → bacteriostatic.

it is a synthetic antimicrobial agent. 

Uses of Sulphonamides antimicrobial drug: sulfonamide mainly used these days with a combination.
  • Urinary tract infection,
  • Respiratory tract infection,
  • Sexually tract infection,
  • skin infection.
 Classification Sulphonamides drugs
 Short-acting Sulfonamide drugsSulfisoxazole, Sulfamethizole
 Intermediate-acting sulfonamide drugSulfamethoxazole, Sulfamoxole
 Longe acting Sulfonamide drugs Sulfadoxine, Sulphamethixypyridazine
 Topical drugs Silver Sulfadiazine, Mafenide, Sulfacetamide

Synergistic combination:
  • Trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole (Cotrimoxazole),
  • Sulfadoxine + Pyrimethamine.

Cyclic Lipopeptides:

  • Daptomycin.


  • Trimethoprim.


They are effective against Gram-negative aerobes, gram-positive cocci.  this group of antibacterial drugs has broader antimicrobial activity. 

uses of quinolones: 
  • urinary tract infection, 
  • bacterial diarrhea, 
  • Salmonella typhi infection, 
  • sexually transmitted infection, 
  • soft tissue, and wound infection, 
  • respiratory tract infection, 

 Classification Quinolones drugs
 1st generation drugs. Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Pefloxacin, Lomefloxacin, Nalidixic acid
 2nd Generation Levofloxacin,  Prulifloxacin
 3rd generation. Sparfloxacin, Gatifloxacin
 4th generation  Moxifloxacin, Trovafloxacin, Finafloxacin.

Tetracycline antibiotics

Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotic drug. it has a 4 cyclic anthracycline ring structure. it is used for the treatment of,
  • fever,
  • Typhus fever,
  • Pneumonia,
  • respiratory tract infection,
  • genitourinary infection,
  • dental infection,
  • ENT infection,
  • Gynecological infection.



  • Principles of pharmacology: h. L Sharma and K. K Sharma. paras medical publisher.
  • Drug today India,
  • CIMS India,
  • Pharma ecology Diploma in pharmacy,

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