Consumption of alcohol and some medicines affects your liver health.

Anatomy and physiology of the liver


The human liver is reddish-brown in color and the largest and heaviest internal organ in the body.it is situated right side below the chest region (It is located in the upper quadrilateral of the abdominal cavity, it lies just below the diaphragm on the right side of the abdomen.). the liver secretes bile and bile is normally stored in the gall bladder. gall bladder just below the liver .blie is alkaline and contains salts that help to emulsify or break the fats (lipid) present in the food.


Size:
weight and width of the human liver 👉The weight of an adult human liver is generally around 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lbs), and its width is about 15 cm (6 inches).


blood vessels supply of liver :


The liver is linked to two large blood vessels: the liver artery and portal vein and normal liver duct. The hepatic artery carries the oxygenated blood from the aortic through the sealial placxes, while the portal vein carries the entire blood sugar from the entire gastrointestinal tract and nutrients digested through the spleen and pancreas. These blood vessels are subdivided into small capillaries known as liver sinoside, which later cause lobules.

liver histology:

Lobules are the functional units of the liver. Each lobule is made up of millions of hepatic cells (hepatocytes), which are the basic metabolic cells. The lobules are put together by a fine, dense, irregular, fibroblastic connective tissue layer, which emits from the fibrous capsule covering the entire liver known as the Glisson capsule.


The main function of the liver:

Various functions of the liver are performed by liver cells or hepatocytes. the liver is responsible for different functions, by itself and in combination with other systems and organs. At present, no artificial organ or device is able to reproduce all the functions of the liver. Some functions can be performed by liver Dialysis, an experimental treatment of liver failure. The liver plays a major role in carbohydrate, protein, amino acids and lipid metabolism. makes the acidic food coming from the stomach alkaline so pancreatic enzymes can act on the food. bile salt breaks the fats present in the food into small globules making it easy for the enzyme to act and digest the food.
  • The lever is responsible for the breakdown of insulin and other hormones. The liver breaks bilirubin through glucuronidation, facilitates its emission in the bile.
  • The liver is responsible for the breakdown and emission of many waste products.
  • It plays an important role in breaking or modifying toxic substances (e.g., methylation) and most medicinal products in a process called medication metabolism.
  • This sometimes causes poisoning, when the metabolite is more toxic than its precursor. Preferably, toxins are conjugated for the emission of bile or urine.
  • The liver breaks ammonia in urea as part of the urea cycle, and urea is excreted in the urine.
  • Stored in a multitude of substances including liver glucose (as glycogen), vitamin A, vitamin D (1-4 months supply), vitamin B12 (3-5) Does it Years supply), vitamins, iron, and copper.
  • The liver is responsible for immunological effects - there are many immunologically active cells in the mononuclear phagocyte system of the liver, which acts as a 'sieve' for the antigen carrying it through the portal system.
  • The liver produces the most abundant protein albumin in the blood serum. It is essential in the maintenance of oncotic pressure and acts as the transport of fatty acids and steroid hormones.
  • The liver synthesizes angiotensinogen, a hormone that is responsible for increasing blood pressure when energized by renin, an enzyme that is released when the kidney experiences low blood pressure.
  • The liver produces enzyme catalysts to break hydrogen peroxide because it is a very toxic substance, it is a powerful oxidizing agent, in water and oxygen.


एक टिप्पणी भेजें

0 टिप्पणियाँ