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The functions of the liver in digestion system

what is the liver - The human liver is reddish-brown in color and the largest and heaviest internal organ in the human body.

Lobules are the functional units of the liver. Each lobule is made up of millions of hepatic cells (hepatocytes). 

The lobules are held together by a fine, dense, irregular, fibro elastic connective tissue layer extending from the fibrous capsule covering the entire liver known as Glisson's capsule.

The whole surface of the liver is covered with peritoneum ( except for the bare area,), and this firmly adheres to the inner Glisson's capsule.

It secretes bile into the small intestine. bile is a greenish-yellow liquid made by the liver and store in the gallbladder.

every day liver secretes 800 - 1000 ml of bile, which is essential for digestion.

Location

right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm, right of the stomach, and overlies the gallbladder. It is the heaviest internal organ and the largest gland in the human body.


liver weight

A human liver weight: normally about 1.5 kg. (the standard range for men 970–1,860 g and, women 600–1,770 g )


liver size

Width about 15 cm.

Blood vessels

it is connected to two large blood vessels: 
the hepatic artery and the portal vein. 


Note: The size variation between individuals, 



The function of the liver


The liver secretes bile and bile is normally stored in the gall bladder. gall bladder just below the liver .blie is alkaline and contains salts that help to emulsify or break the fats (lipid) present in the food.
The liver performs various functions in the body. they are 


👉 One of the most important functions of the liver is to regulate the level of glucose in the bloodstream. The maintenance of a constant level of blood glucose is essential because specialized cells, such as the brain cells, are easily damaged by slight fluctuations in glucose levels.


👉 Excess glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen while declining blood glucose can be restored by the conversion of liver glycogen into glucose.


👉 In addition to the formation of glycogen, the liver can convert glucose into fat, which is then either stored in the liver itself or in special fat-deposit tissues known as adipose tissues.


👉 The production of bile occurs in the liver. Bile is of major importance in aiding the digestion of fats. It is secreted by the liver cells into a number of small ducts that drain into a common bile duct.


👉 Bile is stored in the gallbladder, which releases its contents upon stimulation by the presence of fats in the duodenum.


👉 When proteins are metabolized, ammonia, a toxic sub­stance, is formed. The cells of the liver are able to detoxify ammonia rapidly by transforming it into the relatively inert substance urea. Urea can then be excreted from the body in the urine.


👉 The liver also produces a lipid that has been frequently associated with heart diseases - cholesterol.


👉 In fact, a diet with reduced cholesterol content may not be effective in lowering cholesterol levels in the body because the liver responds by producing more. Our liver. the function of the liver in the digestion system



👉 produces anywhere from 1-2 grams of cholesterol per day. Production decrease when we eat cholesterol-rich foods and increase when we eat foods without cholesterol. 


👉 Cholesterol is necessary to produce vitamin D, steroid hormones, and bile acids. It's also a component of cell membranes.


👉 The liver plays an important role in blood clotting. It is the site of the production of prothrombin and fibrinogen, substances essential to the formation of a blood clot.


👉 In addition, bile secreted by the liver aids in the absorption of vitamin K by the intestine. Vitamin K is an essential cofactor in the synthesis of prothrombin and the plasma clotting cofactors.


👉 Vitamin D, produced by the skin, is relatively inactive and requires biochemical transformation, first by the liver and then by the kidneys, before it is fully able to stimulate the absorption of calcium by the gut. The mechanism of activating vitamin D is not yet fully understood. However, the presence of liver and kidney enzymes is essential to the process.


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