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8 body systems and their function

The human body works as a wonderful machine, it is a machine that performs all its functions on its own without any external instructions.

 Such as eating food while feeling hungry, sleeping when tired, thinking, feeling, and giving birth to a baby like yourself, etc. Therefore we can say, our body is very intelligent.

The human body is made up of millions of cells. A group of cells forms tissue. Tissues form organs. And a group of organs forms the body system. Organ systems work together to perform various functions.

Our body has different organs to perform different functions. Those whose work is different from each other but they work like a team.

 Cells  →    tissues  →    Organs   → Organ system

Body system definition

Our body is made up of millions of cells. And the same structural cells together make tissues. Tissues are formed together in organs. 

A group of organs together performing a task in a living body forms systems there is 8 important system in the human body. 

Each system performs a different function, but they work together similarly to a team.

They are,

  • The main organ systems in the human body.
  • The skeletal system
  • The muscular system,
  • The respiratory system,
  • The digestive system,
  • the excretory system
  • The nervous system,
  • The circulatory system, and
  • The reproductive system.

Skeletal system parts and function

The human skeletal system is made up of bones that are connected to each other by a bone joint.

The point at which two or more bones meet is called a joint. There are a total of 206 bones in the adult human body.

  • Some important facts about the skeletal system!
  • There are a total of 206 bonuses in the adult human body,
  • The bone gives the framework of the human body,
  • The skeletal system gives shape to the body,
  • The skeletal system supports the body,
  • Long bones contain a jelly-like material called bone marrow,
  • The bone marrow produces red blood cells,
  • Bone marrow stores fat.

Skull bones

The skull bones protect the human brain. skull made up of 22 bones join together.

The skull protects the brain and is made up of 22 bones.

The skull has 2 parts,
The lower jaw is made up of 8 bones and is movable.
The upper jaw is made up of 14 bones and is fixed.


Ribcages made up of 12 pairs of curved bones and ribcage cages protect the heart and lungs.

all Ribs are connected to the upper part of the backbones.

Real Ribs - First, 7 pairs of ribs attached breastbone (sternum) are called real ribs or true ribs.

floating ribs - the lowest 2 pairs are not connected to the sternum called floating ribs.

False ribs - The last 5 pairs of ribs are called false ribs.

The next 3 are connected through the sternum through a common connecting bone,

The main function of the rib cage,
Protect lungs
Protect the Heart,
The upper part of the spinal cord,


backbone protects the spinal cord .back bone (vertebral column) made up of 33 hollow bones called vertebrae.

The backbone is also known as the vertebral column, it is made up of  33 vertebrae. 
It protects the spinal cord, 
It supports the spinal cord.
It helps to keep the body straight.

Limb bones

The arms and legs are called limbs. The body of a man consists of a pair of upper limbs (hands) and a pair of lower limbs (legs). two pairs of limbs are the forelimbs (arms) and hind limbs (legs).

Two pairs of limbs. 

  • forelimbs (arms)
  • hind limbs (legs)

The thighbone (femur) is the bone of the upper hind limb, that connects to the hip and knee joint.

The point where two bones join together is called a joint. that fastened by a strong fiber called ligaments.

types of joints There are two types of joints in our body.

Immovable joints are such joints in the skull bone. There are a total of 22 bones in the bone of our head, of which 14 bones are immovable, they are firmly attached.

movable joints Such joints have free movements. They have cartilage to avoid rubbing each other. types of movable joints,

Ball and socket joints - The bone in such joints can easily rotate in all directions. As our shoulder and hip joints are examples of this.

Hinge joint: In such a joint, the movement is in one direction (back and forth). Like, knees.

Pivot joint: In such a joint, the bone may rotate from right to left and up. Like, neck.

Gliding joint: When the movement is interconnected between bones, it is called a gliding joint. Such movements occur in the wrist, ankle, and spine.

Functions of the Skeleton system

  • The skeleton gives shape and support to the body,
  • It helps to keep the body standing and moving.
  • Provides protection to delicate organs,
  • Skull provides protection to the brain,
  • The rib cage provides protection to the heart and lungs,
  • The backbone provides protection to the spinal cord,
  • bone forms a red blood cell.
  • Bones and muscles together provide movement in the body.

The muscular system

The muscular system is an organ system that contains skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles. It helps our movement of the body, maintains posture, and circulates blood throughout the body.

Muscles are fleshy tissue that is connected to the bones through Strong fibers called tendons.600 muscles are in the human body.

The muscular system is made up of muscles. Muscles are all over the body, attached to the bone, and due to which movement is possible. Our heart muscles continue to work tirelessly.

Muscles work in pairs, as does spring. Any action is possible through their contraction and expansion. The contract muscles are tight and short, while the expansion muscles relax, then they reach their original position.

For example, our hand biceps and triceps muscles work.

Types of muscles

There are 3 main types of muscles in the human body.
  1. Skeletal muscles,
  2. Smooth muscles, and,
  3. Cardiac muscles.

Skeletal muscles: These muscles work on our free will. Therefore, such muscles are also called voluntary muscles. We can control them. Such as - running, laughing, eating food, etc.

Smooth muscles: We cannot control such muscles. Hence they are also called involuntary muscles. Such as - abdominal wall, intestines, etc.

Cardiac muscles - The heart is made up of cardiac muscles. Which works continuously from birth to life.

The Respiratory system

The respiratory system consists of a nose, windpipe, and lungs.

Oxygen is taken from the atmosphere to the air and transported to the lungs. And through blood circulation, it is carried in different cells of the body. Oxidation of food occurs inside cells, due to oxygen and other substances. The energy released in this process is used in various functions of the body, and carbon dioxide and other elements are produced which are taken out of the body.

 These are very complex functions in which many organs work together. In this process, the air is drawn through the nose.

Inside the nose is small hair and mucus, which prevents dust and other harmful substances present in the air from entering the lungs. The air then travels through the nasal cavity and trachea to the lungs.

The diaphragm plays a very important role in this process. The diaphragm is filled with air when it is at the bottom, and when it is up, the air is released.

What is breathing

Breathing is a physical process. It takes oxygen from the air and removes carbon dioxide from the lungs, which is called inhalation.

The average breathing rate in a resting adult is about 15 to 18 times per minute. Breathing rate increases with increased physical activity. Thus we breathe faster to produce more energy.

What is respiratory

The process of releasing energy from food is called respiration. In this process, oxygen burns food into the body's cells to release energy and waste products such as carbon dioxide and water that are eliminated from the body as waste products.

Respiratory organs,
  • Nose
  • Nasal cavity
  • Trachea, bronchi,
  • Lungs and
  • Diaphragm

The Digestive system

The human digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and its associated glands.

humans have various organs of the digestive system: mouth, esophagus (food pipe), stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.

Food takes 18 hours to fully digest.

The process of digestion starts when food reaches our mouth.

Saliva combines with food in the mouth, thus softening the food. It is broken into small pieces by teeth.

Now it reaches the stomach through a food pipe or esophagus. Where digestive juice plays an important role in the digestion of food. After that, the food reaches the small intestine and the existing nutrients are taken in the food.

The remaining food is pushed into the large intestine, where water and other substances are ingested. And undigested food is transported to the rectum. And is taken out by the anus.

Our digestive system consists of several organs.
  • Mouth,
  • Food pipe or Oesophagus,
  • Stomach,
  • Small intestine,
  • Large intestine,
  • Rectum,
  • Anus.

The Excretory system

The excretory system clear out the waste material from the body. human kidney removing waste in the form of urine faces from the intestine through the anus. and carbon dioxide execrated through the lungs and sweat through the skin.

By excretory system, waste material is taken out of the body. The kidney is the most important extractive organ in our body.

The waste material is excreted by the kidneys as urine. While feces are taken out of the anus by the intestine.

Similarly, carbon dioxide is removed by the lungs and skin.

The main part of the excretory system,

  • Kidney,
  • anus,
  • lungs,
  • skin.

The Nervous system

The nervous system coordinates the activity of the body. The nervous system is the control system for all our actions. such as thinking.  we can feel the cold, heat, pain, danger, etc due to our nervous system. unit of the nervous system is nerve cells or neurons. consists of,

  • Nerve cell,
  • Cell body,
  • Dendrites,
  • Axon.
  • parts of the nervous system,

1- Central nervous system,

2- Peripheral nervous system, it is two types,

a- Autonomic nervous system,

b- voluntary nervous system.

The central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord. it is responsible for the coordination and control of the activity of the nervous system. brain control body activity, it stores information. all the nerves together make the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

The Circulatory system

The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels. 

the main function of the circulatory system transport food and oxygen to various parts of the body and bring back carbon dioxide and waste products to our lungs and to the kidney.

The system, which consists of the heart, blood vessels, blood, lymphatic and lymphatic vessels, and glands, communicates blood and lymph through the body.

The circulatory system is made up of

  • heart,
  • blood,
  • blood vessels.

The heart is made up of cardiac muscles, located behind the ribs and between the lungs. The heart beats continuously, causing the Lub -dub to be heard.

"A healthy human heartbeat is 72 times a minute."

Blood is collected in the heart, which is called the chamber. There are 2 chambers on either side of the heart.

The above 2 chambers are called the left atrium and right atrium respectively. And both are called auricles or atria. Blood accumulates from the body and lungs in these chambers.

The bottom two chambers are called the left ventricle and right ventricle. Blood from the ventricle is supplied to the body and lungs. There is a strong wall of muscles in the middle of the heart called the septum. Which divides the left side and right side of the heart.

  • Blood vessels:
  • Arteries,
  • Veins,
  • Capillaries.

Oxygen-rich blood is transported into the body by arteries. Whereas Veins carry blood from the body to the heart.

At its end, the artery is divided into small tubes called capillaries. They also act to connect veins and arteries.


The circulatory system carries food and oxygen to all parts of the body. This includes the heart, blood, and blood vessels.

The Reproductive system

The process by which living things produce offspring (young ones ) of their own kind. there are two types of reproduction in organisms.

Asexual reproduction,

Sexual reproduction.

human being has different reproduction system in males and females.

Asexual reproduction,

In asexual reproduction, only one parent is needed to produce a new organism. 

types of asexual reproduction,

  • Fission,
  • Budding,
  • Spore formation,
  • Regeneration,
  • Fragmentation,
  • Vegetative propagation.

Sexual reproduction,

In sexual reproduction, 2 parents are needed to produce a new one. humans, fish, monkey, cow, dogs, cats, elephants, horses, rabbits, lion, dear most of the flowering plants reproduce by the methods of sexual reproduction.

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