why was national emergency declared in India in 1975

What is the National emergency? When and why it was imposed.

The first national emergency in India was imposed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's government on 25 June 1975. It lasted 21 months (until 23 March 1977).

In the general election of India, March 1971, Indira Gandhi's image was established as the Messiah of the masses through her Poverty Bachao slogan (composed by Shrikant Verma) and a breathtaking declaration.

Due to this, in the 1971 election, the Congress party won 352 seats out of 518 seats.

Indira Gandhi won from Rae Bareli seat with more than 1 lakh votes.

National emergency 1975 reason:

This victory was challenged in Allahabad High Court by Raj Narayan, the socialist leader who lost to Indira Gandhi.

The then judge of Allahabad Highcourt Jagmohan Lal Sinha ruled that it is illegal to be elected as an MP, and also banned Indira Gandhi for contesting elections for the next 4 years.
At that time, several options to solve this problem were considered by Indira Gandhi, such as

"The then Congress President DK Barua suggested that he should become the Congress President till the final verdict comes and give him the Prime Minister's post".

"His son Sanjay Gandhi said that he should not resign from his post"

After considering many options, Indira Gandhi challenged the Allahabad High Court's decision in the Supreme Court.

Supreme Court Judge Justice VR Krishna Iyer allowed Indira Gandhi to continue as Prime Minister, and the Allahabad High Court did not overturn the decision but barred her from voting in Parliament.

Indira Gandhi was forced to impose an emergency for several reasons. like,
  1. Public anger against the Indira government increased, 
  2. Opposition united, 
  3. No relief from the court, mass movement, and 
  4. Non-cooperation movement by Jai Prakash Narayan, 
  5. The student movement, etc.

What reasons did the government give for declaring a national 

On June 26, 1985, Indira Gandhi said in a message to the nation, the kind of environment created in the country by Jai Prakash Narayan, it has become necessary that an emergency should be imposed in the country to protect the unity and integrity of the country. 

The emergency was imposed in India under Article 352. The then President Fakruddin Ali Ahmed declared an emergency at the behest of Indira Gandhi.

Internal Security System Act (MISA)

Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA) was a law passed by the Indian Parliament in 1971. In this act, the security agencies maintaining law and order were given a lot of authority. It also underwent several amendments during the Emergency (1975–1977) and imposed it on many political prisoners. It was finally abolished by the Janata Party government in 1977.
At that time, among the major opposition leaders arrested under the MISA Act, Jai Prakash Narayan, Lal Krishna Advani, Chaudhary Charan Singh, Morarji Desai, etc., hundreds of leaders were put in jail.
The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) was banned.

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