Facts about India for kids

facts for kids:


Contents

  • India facts for kids.
  • The Indian constitution.
  • The parliamentary system of India.
  • The Judiciary System of India.
  • The national emblem of India.
  • Physical divisions of India.
  • The Northern Mountain.
  • The Indus River system.
  • The Ganga river system.
  • Brahmaputra River system.
  • The great Indian Desert.
  • Island.
  • Five Largest countries in the world.
  • Neighbors Countries.



 Country Name Republic of IndiaBharat Ganrajaya
 Location Northern hemisphereEast- Bay of Bengal, West - Arabian sea,
South- Indian Ocean. 
 Latitudes 8  4' N and 37 6'N
 Longitude 68 7'E and 97 25'E
 Tropic of Cancer 23 30' N (divides)Southeast and Southwest
 Indira Point southernmost pointSubmerged under the seawater in 2004 
During the Tsunami
 Size 3.28 million square km
(The total area of India 3,200,000 sq km)
 2.4 % geographical area of the world,
7th largest state in the world
 Land boundary 15,200 
The total length of the mainland. 7,516.6 km.  Including Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep.
 Indian Standard Time GMT + 05:30 Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh time leg to 2 hours. therefore time along the Standard Meridian of India
82  30' passing through Mirzapur UP is taken as the standard time for the whole country.
 Continents Asia India has a central location between east and west Asia. it is a southward extension of the Asian continent.
Telephone Country Code + 91 
 Population 1,210,193,422. India's population, as on 1 March 2011
 Religions Hindu Home of many religions, Hinduism, Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam, etc
 Capital  New Delhi 
Administrative Divisions:  28 States and 8 Union Territories. 
Independence:  15th August 1947. 
Source: The National Portal of India.

The Indian Constitution

India's constitution is the longest in the world. passed on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950. " Constitution declares the union of India to be a sovereign socialist, secular, democratic republic." The original Preamble stated India to be a ' sovereign democratic republic'. in 1976 the 42th Amendment added the words "socialist and secular"

Sovereign means supreme or independent.

Socialist, social and economic equality is one of the goals of the state. social equality means that everyone is treated equally irrespective of their caste, color, creed, race, sex, or religion. Economic equality means that the government will strive to ensure the fair distribution of wealth among all people.
Secular, means all religions are treated with equal respect. In India, there is no official religion.
Republic, India become a republic on 26 January 1950, when the constitution officially came into force. The head of the state, the President, elected every 5 years.

The parliamentary system of India

The Parliament is the central legislative body in India. consists of 2 houses,
  1. Lok Sabha - 545 members, the Lower house of the Parliament.
  2. Rajya Sabha - 250 members, the upper house of the Parliament.
, and the President of India. member of the 2 houses is called as Member of Parliament (MPs).

The Judiciary System of India

The judiciary is to deliver justice and punish those who violate the law. The judiciary in India is Independent of the executive and the legislature. The supreme court is the highest court in India. Below the supreme court are high courts in the states. under the high court are the district and subordinate courts at the district level. If a person is dissatisfied with the verdict of the court he can appeal to a higher court.
Cases may be 2 types, 
  1. Civil cases- deal with disputes over property, inheritance, etc.
  2. Criminal Cases - deal with crimes such as theft, murder, kidnapping, etc.

The national emblem of India

National Identity Elements of India. These symbols are of Indian identity.

The national flag of India


Tricolor, Saffron
at the top (Saffron indicates strength and courage), white in the middle (The white middle band indicates peace and truth along with the Dharma Chakra), and green at the bottom in equal proportion (Green color indicates the fertility, growth, and well-being of the land). The design of the national flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947. and has 24 spokes. in the center of the white band is a navy-blue wheel.


The National anthem of India: 

The national anthem of IndiaJan Gana-ManaOriginally composed in Bengali by Rabindranath TagoreAdopted as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950 by the Constituent Assembly in its Hindi version. The full version of the national anthem is about 52 seconds. A short version consisting of the first and last lines of the verses (about 20 seconds of time) is also played on some occasions.



The national song of India

 The song Vande Mataram Composed in Sanskrit by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee On 24 January 1950 The song was a part of Bankim Chandra's most famous novel Anand Math (1882).


State symbol of India: 

Ashoka, There are four lions, standing on their backs, mounted on an abacus with a trio carrying statues in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, an ox, and a lion, which are bells. The shaped lotus is separated from the wheels, intervening on the lotus. The capital, carved from the same section of polished sandstone, is crowned by the Wheel of Law (Dharma Chakra).


National Bird of India: Peacock.

The Indian peacock,(Pavo cristatus).



National Flower of India: Lotus

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Garton).


National Animal of India: Tiger

Tiger (Panthera tigris).


Season of India

  • Winter (December-February)
  • Summer (March-June)
  • South-west monsoon season (June-September)
  • Post-monsoon season (October-November).






Physical divisions of India

India is divided into 6 main physical divisions
  1. Northern Mountains
  2. The Northern Plains
  3. The Peninsular Plateau
  4. The great Indian desert
  5. The Coastal plain
  6. Islands.

The Northern Mountain

The northern mountain form a wall in the North of India. The Northern Mountains originated as a series of Parallel ranges from the Pamir Knot in Central Asia. The 3 ranges to the South-east of the,



  1. Pamir Knot - Karakoram Range
  2. The Ladakh Range and,
  3. The Himalayas Range
The Name Himalayas means the " abode of snow" ( Sanskrit means Hima = snow, Alaya = House). It is the highest range in this system and covered with snow throughout the year. extend from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. the Himalayas, geologically young and structurally fold mountain stretch over the northern border of India. there are 3 parallel ranges of the Himalayas.


  1. The Himadri or Greater Himalayas
  2. The Himachal or Lesser Himalayas
  3. The Shiwaliks or Outer Himalayas.

The  Himadari:

The Himadri or Greater Himalayas are the highest mountains.  These mountains have large glaciers such as Siachin, Gangotri ( source of river Ganga), Yamunotri ( source of river Yamuna) and these mountains have passes (rout) that provide rout for across the mountains. like Karakoram Pass, Zojila La, Shipki La, Nathu La. some important peaks in the Greater Himalayas:



Peaks Height Contrary
 Kanchanjunga  8,598 m Sikkim (India)
 Nanga Parbat 8,126 m India
 Dhaulagiri 8,172 m Nepal
 Nanda Devi 7,817 m India
 Makalu 8,481 m Nepal
 Annapurna 8,078 m Nepal


Note: Mt Everest, the highest peak in the world (8850 m)- in Nepal and Mt K2 or Godwin Austin, India's highest peak ( 8611 m) in Karakoram range.

The Himachal or Middle Himalayas are the second-highest range of the Himalayas. It is south of the Greater Himalayas, and 1,500 to 3,500 m high. Shimla, Nainital, Mussorie, Kullu, Manali, and Darjiling are some spots of this range.

The Shiwaliks or Outer Himalayas is a lower range of Himalayas. the average height of this range is less than 1,500 m. it is a very broken and high landslides zone. between the Himachal and Shiwaliks range, a beautiful longitudinal series are known as duns such as Dehradun Uttarakhand India is an example.

The hills in the north-east are known as Purvachal Hills. The world's wettest place Mawsynram ( near Cherrapunji) is situated in Meghalaya.


The Northern Plains: 

It lies to the south of the Himalayas. These are very fertile plains formed by 3 large Rivers. The Himalayan rivers have water throughout the year. they receive water from rain and melted snow. The Himalayan river long and is joined by many large tributaries.
  1. The Indus,
  2. The Ganga,
  3. The Brahmaputra.

The Indus River system

The river Indus rises in Tibet, and flowing west, enter India at Ladakh district of Union Territory of India. in this part, it forms a picturesque gorge. other tributaries join, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok, and the Hunza at Kashmir region. the Indus River flows Baltistan and Gilgit and In Mithankot in Pakistan the Satluj, the beans, the Ravi the Chenab, and the Jhelum joint together with Indus. In the end, the Indus flows southwards to reach the Arabian sea. The total length of the Indus river is 2900 km.

 River Originated Drains Tributaries Indus basin lies
 Indus Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Arabian sea Chenab, Jhelum, Sutlej, Ravi, and  Beas. Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, and Pakistan.

Indus River forms a delta in Karachi Pakistan.


The Ganga river system

Ganga river arises in Gangotri Glacier and the joint Alaknanda river at Deoprayag in Uttrakhand. The Ganga is jointed many tributaries. Yamuna meets at Prayag (UP). The length of the Ganga is over 2500 km.


 River Originated Drains Tributaries Lies Lenght
Ganga plainsGangotri glacierBay of BengalBhagirathi, Alaknanda, 
Ramganga, Gomati, Ghaghra
Gandak, Kosi, Mahananada, 
Brahamaputra
Yamuna, Tamsa, Sone, Punpun, Falgu, Chandan, Damodar .
Uttrakhand,
Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, and Bangladesh
2601 km


Brahmaputra River system

The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet east of Mansarovar lake very close source of the Indus and the Satluj. It enters in Arunachal Pradesh India. In Arunachal Pradesh, it is called Dihang. the Dibang, the Lohiit, and other tributaries to form the Brahmaputra in Assam.

 River Originated Drains Tributaries Lies
 Brahmaputra River 
(Tsangpo called Tibet)
 Mansarovar Lake Bay of Bengal Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, and Bangladesh

River Ganga and Bahramaputra form the world's largest delta called Sundarban Delta.




The Peninsular Plateau

Plateau is the uplifted portion of the earth's crust that has flat surfaces and is often rocky. the plateau also called a high plain or tableland. 

 Plateau Lies                                   
 Peninsular plateauSouth of the Ganga plain
 Malwa plateauBetween  the Aravallis and
the Vindhya
 Chota Nagpur PlateauThe north-eastern part of the Peninsular plateau
 Deccan PlateauSouth of the Vindhya


Rivers originated from the Peninsular Rivers

 River Flowing
 Chambal
 North flowing
 Betwa North flowing
 Son North flowing
 Narmada and Tapi West flowing
 Godavari East flowing
 Krishna East flowing
 Kaveri East flowing
 Vaigai East flowing


The great Indian Desert

Desert is an area of land, that very hot and dry, because of little rainfall. so the scope of agriculture is seasons and limited.

 Name of Desert Lies
 Thar DesertThe north-western part of India
Extends westward from Aravalli Range into the desert of Sindh in Pakistan.


The Coastal Plains

A plain is a broad area of relatively late land. plains is a level surface of land at a low elevation (500 feet above the sea level) from the sea.

India coastal plains are divided into 2 parts,
  1. West coast,
  2. East coast.

The West coast is a narrow late of land between the Western Ghats and the Arabian sea. like The Malabar Coast in Kerala has beautiful backwaters or lagoons

.

The East coast is broad and fertile all the peninsular rivers enter the Bay of Bengal forming distributaries and large Deltas.


Island

The Sandman and Nicobar Islands are situated in the Bay of Bengal. are volcanic Islands. Barren Island only active Volcano in India, close to the main islands.

Lakshadweep Island is situated off the coast of Kerala in the Arabian Sea.


Neighbors Countries:

Afghanistan and Pakistan North-west
China, Bhutan, and Nepal North
Myanmar  East
Bangladesh East to West Bengal
Sri Lanka  It is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
Maldives islands south of the Lakshadweep Island



Source:

A textbook in Geography for class IX - Contemporary India NCERT book.

A textbook of Geography for class 6 - ICSE schools educational Publishers Goyal brother 

National portal of India ( knowindia)








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