pulmonary tuberculosis meaning

Tuberculosis is caused by the bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosisIt is small rod-shaped bacteria and it enters through the lungs. the symptoms of tuberculosis are cough, chest pain, fever, and thick expectorates matter (Sputum). the latter may be rust-colored if the blood has entered the lungs cavity.

The incubation period of tuberculosis is about 2–10 weeks. Inside the lungs, cells of macrophages, leukocytes, and T-lymphocytes surround the parasite and form a hard nodule-tubercle due to the deposition of calcium salts. Which is clearly visible on the X-ray of the chest of the patient.

When the tubercle separates, the bacteria have a chance to spread to other organs such as the liver, bones, and kidneys. The disease is then called mylar tuberculosis.

The consumption of lung tissue is accelerated due to the rapid growth of bacteria. The lungs are a pair of pink and spongy organs that are protected by a rib cage. The lungs are protected externally by two membranes called the outer membrane and the inner pleura.

The space between the two membranes is filled with fluid. This fluid acts as a shock absorber and therefore protects the lungs.

 TB is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mostly affects the lungs, which causes pulmonary tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis transmission

Mycobacterium tuberculosis. usually spread through the air. When a patient coughs or sneezes, thousands of Mycobacterium bacilli are released into the air in the form of small drops, a healthy person breathing, they can cause illness.

Classification of tuberculosis: Tuberculosis is 2 types.

1 - Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB of the lungs).- known as lungs tuberculosis

2 - Extrapulmonary tuberculosis:  Apart from tuberculosis of the lungs, TB of other organs is called extrapulmonary tuberculosis. such as,

a) lymph nodes,
 b) TB of bones and joints,
c) Urogenital tract,
d) Tubercular meningitis,
e) Intestinal TB.

Symptoms of pulmonary TB: persistent cough for 2 weeks or longer with sputum or with occasional blood when cough,  Fever, and chest pain.
  1. Cough with mucus for 2 weeks or more,
  2. Fever in the evening
  3. Bodyweight loss,
  4. Loss of appetite,
  5. Chest pain,
  6. Blood sputum,
  7. Trouble breathing

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