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Oral contraceptive pill- effective methods for birth control 99% success rate

Oral contraceptive pills contain contraceptive estrogens and progestin hormones. oral pills containing a combination of Estrogen and  Progestins in varying amounts. Combination pills are a very popular method for contraception. success rate 99 %. the preparation contains a balanced formulation of estrogens and progestins.

Oral contraceptive pills

Estrogen   +  Progestin

Ethinylestradiol + Norgestrel,

Ethinylestradiol   +  Levonorgestrel,

Mestranol  +   norethindrone,

Ethinyl estradiol  +  Desogestrel.

Oral combine contraceptive pills are three types
  • Monophasic combination pills, 
  • Biphasic combination oral pills, and 
  • Triphasic pills.

If the same amount of estrogen and progestin is given in a 21-day period, it is called monophasic combination pills.

Estimation of estrogen in biphasic oral pills is fixed and the amount of progesterone increased in the next 2 phases.

In triphasic pills, the amount of estrogen is increased in the middle. And the amount of progesterone is increased continuously in 3 phases.

Oral contraceptives or birth control pills are drugs that prevent pregnancy. oral contraceptive is an easy safe effective and reversible contraceptive for women wanting to delay their first pregnancy or space the next child.

it is the method of choice for postponing the first pregnancy or space the next child. oral contraceptives available in packets containing a month supply. each packet has 28 tablets. 

The first 21 tablets are white in color and contain hormones that prevent pregnancy. The remaining 7 tablets are colored and do not contain hormones. these should be taken to maintain continuity. 

Estrogen and progestogen stop eggs from being made, so no egg is released from the ovary.

The pill work by suppressing the release of the ovum ( egg cell) from the ovaries.

Working method

Combination oral pills suppress ovulation by inhibiting the release of FSH and LH.

How to start

taking the oral contraceptive pill from the 5th day of the menstrual period ( counting the first day, when the menstrual period starts).

Continue taking one pill a day along the direction indicated by the arrow mark.

develop the habit of taking pills at a particular time of the day preferably either after dinner or before going to bed.

after taking the white pill one each for 21 days, take one color pill a day for the next seven days.

you will have regular menstruation while taking the color pills, do not stop taking even if you have a period.

when the color pills are exhausted continue taking pills from a new packet as instructed above.

even if you are having periods or did not get periods to start the new pack every next day after taking the last color pill.

If you want to conceive stop using pills.

keeping an extra pack of the pills handy so that the next pill cab be started without a break.

regularity and continuity in taking the pills are essential to prevent pregnancy.

If a pill is missed

If you miss a pill on a particular night the missed tablet should be taken the next day as soon as you remember. take another pill at night as usual.

In other words on the day following a missed pill day, two pills would have to be taken.

if you have missed the pill on two-three occasions continue pill-taking but use another contraceptive method like condoms till the next cycle started.

 Oral pills advantages

The oral pills best way to freedom upon the married woman to control her own fertility and choose motherhood when she desires. It is the best method for preventing pregnancy .it has a beneficial effect on the following.

  1. Eases pain during menstruation.,
  2. reduce excessive bleeding during menstruation,
  3. provides some protection against pelvic infection,
  4. protects against cancer of ovary and endometrium,
  5. protects against begins breast tumors and ovarian cyst.


  1. tenderness of breasts,
  2. headache,
  3. Nausea - in the first one or two months but these symptoms disappear very soon.
  4. In some women, the long-term use of oral pills may lead to an increased risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, or venous thrombosis.


  1. suspected/confirm pregnancy.
  2. irregular unexplained vaginal bleeding.
  3. breastfed infant less than 6 months of age.
  4. rifampicin therapy ( anti-tubercular treatment).
  5. heart attack.
  6. venous thrombosis.
  7. high B.P.
  8. diabetes.
  9. liver disease.
  10. gallbladder disease.
  11. jaundice.
  12. suspected/ confirm cancer in any organ.

Use with caution

  1. smoker.
  2. have a migraine.
  3. have epilepsy.
  4.  severe skin allergy.
  5. asthma.
  6. are 40 years of age especially if you are a regular smoker or have to use the pill, continuously for over 5 years.
  7. you do not get a period in two consecutive cycles.
  8. you feel any tightness in the chest.
  9. side effects mentioned above persist longer.
  10. disturbance of vision occurs during pill usage.

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