Cholera is caused by Vibrio cholerae Robert Koch was cultivated in 1883.

Cholera is caused by Vibrio cholerae.was first cultivated by Robert Koch in 1883. the bacterium is Gram-negative rod-shaped has two recognized biotypes.

  1. The classical - Vibrio cholerae.
  2. The El. Tor biotype.

The bacteria enter the gastrointestinal system in large numbers since stomach acid kills most of the bacteria. the surviving organism enters the intestine and moves about through the mucous coating. they adhere strongly to the tissue and produced powerful toxins. the toxins contain three chains of protein that stimulate the production of the enzyme, adenyl cyclase. this enzyme increases the level of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) which leads to the abundant secretion of fluid by the intestine. the presence of infection also retards water absorption through the wall.

Symptoms of cholera:

The symptoms of cholera are as follows...
  1. severe dysentery,
  2. vomiting,
  3. violent cramps,
  4. with much loss of body fluid,
  5. the eyes become shrouded in grey and sink into orbit,
  6. skin becomes dry,
  7. wrinkled and cold and muscular cramps occur in the arms and legs,
  8. there is continuous thirst but the patient cannot hold the fluid in the stomach,
  9. the blood is thickened,
  10. urine production stops,
  11. without urine metabolic waste accumulate and tissue suffer toxic damage,
  12. the sluggish blood flow stops to the brain and oxygen to vital organs stop and the person enters into, coma and soon dies.

Prevention of cholera :

The critical treatment is to restore the water balance in the body by intravenous fluid. tetracycline and other antibiotics are useful in the control of bacteria. prevention methods include...
  1. sanitation,
  2. personal hygiene
  3. and care in food preparation.

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