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Mycobacterium leprae was first observed in 1874 by Gerhard Hansen

Leprosy is caused by Bacillus mycobacterium leprae. Which multiplies very slowly in the human body. The bacterium has a long incubation period (five years or more on average).
The disease affects the nerve endings and destroys the body's ability to feel pain and injury. Leprosy is curable. Treatment provided at the initial stage of infection reduces disability. Multidrug therapy is available. It provides a simple but highly effective treatment for all types of leprosy.
The disease usually affects the skin, peripheral nerves, mucous surfaces of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. They are of all ages from a young age to old age. Leprosy is curable and has the highest disability in the initial treatment.

The cause is the organism Mycobacterium leprae is a heat-sensitive organism that prefers nerves and subcutaneous tissue.

The disease usually does not affect the internal organs. There are 2 forms of leprosy.


It is characterized by tumor-like development called leproma on the skin and respiratory tract. Skin pigmentation can be lost if there are patches of infection in the hands and feet.

Tuberculosis leprosy

This includes the superficial nerves. These muscles undergo atrophy. Skin and bones are uprooted, limbs are twisted, and hand claws are formed for curling in the finger. The nasal cartilage and outer ear tissue often degenerate.

If death occurs, it may be due to secondary infection, but not simply due to leprosy.

Mycobacterium leprae

Mycobacterium leprae was first seen in 1874 by Gerhard Hansen, a Norwegian physician.

The organism is also known as Henson bacillus and the disease, Henson's disease. The organism has not yet been cultivated out of living tissues. He is grown in 1974 from the tissues of an armadillo. The organism is an acid-fast rod that belongs to the genus tubercle bacillus.

Disease transfer

Through contact.

Early symptoms

On the skin, stains/spots of light yellow or red-colored bracelet, faded from skin color, bulging or bulging, with sunburn (no spots on spots), it is not itchy, itching does not feel cold or hot is. Swelling or swelling of the eyebrow, chin, ear, or side of the gum. The main partner is dryness, tingling, numbness, dryness in the hands and feet, along with swelling of the nerves, fatigue, and pain in the nerves.

Diagnosis of leprosy

Guidelines for diagnosis maintain standard methods, including the presence of at least one of the three clinical signs of leprosy:

 (i) Fixed loss of sensation in the pail (hypopigmented) or red patches of skin.
(ii) a thickened or enlarged peripheral nerve with loss of sensation.
(iii) Presence of acid-fast bacilli in slit-skin smears. Clinical diagnosis of early leprosy and paucibacillary leprosy can be a challenge.


The National Leprosy Control Program was launched by the government. In 1955 in India. Multi-drug therapy became widespread in 1982 and the National Leprosy Eradication Program was launched in 1983. Since then, significant progress has been made in reducing the burden of disease. India attained the National Health Policy, the target set for the eradication of leprosy in 2002, as a public health problem, defined in December 2005 as less than 1 case per 10,000 nationally.

leprosy -case Detection and Management.

Disability prevention and medical rehabilitation.

Information, education, and communication (IEC) including behavior change communication (BCC).

Human resources and capacity building.

program management.

It is recommended for all leprosy patients, paucibacillary leprosy for a period of 6 months for treatment, and multicellular leprosy for 12 months. The potential benefit of using the same three drugs for both forms of the disease is a simplification of treatment.

For patients who are resistant to rifampicin, two drugs are recommended: clarithromycin, minocycline, or a quinolone (ofloxacin, levofloxacin, or moxifloxacin), up to 6 months daily, followed by clofazimine plus second line. One of the medicines. Daily for an additional 18 months.

Patients resistant to rifampicin and ofloxacin, clarithromycin, minocycline, and clofazimine may be used for up to 6 months, followed by clarithromycin or minocycline plus clofazimine for an additional 3 months. For adults and children (over 2 years of age) who are in regular contact with leprosy patients, the guidelines recommend the use of single-dose rifampicin.

BCG used for vaccination against tuberculosis has been found useful for leprosy.

Three drugs are used to treat leprosy,
  1. Rifampicin,
  2. Dapsone
  3. Clofazimine

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