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What are the early signs of diabetes?

What is diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known as is a metabolic disorder where a high blood sugar level for a prolonged period. when your body does not utilize insulin properly it is known as insulin resistance. at first, the pancreas makes extra insulin to make up normal for it. But, over time it isn't able to keep up and can not make enough insulin to keep the blood glucose at normal levels.

The common symptoms of diabetes are. Diabetes is due to the Pancreas is not produced enough insulin or the cells of the body do not respond properly produced insulin.
  1. Frequent urination,
  2. Increased thirst,
  3. Increased hunger.

What is the normal blood sugar level?
  1. A blood sugar level of less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal, 
  2. A blood sugar level of more than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) after two hours indicates diabetes, 
  3. A blood sugar level between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) indicates prediabetes.

Types of diabetes mellitus:

Type 1- diabetes mellitus

the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin due to the loss of beta cells. The cause is unknown. it is also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin by itself.

The symptoms of type 1 diabetes are.
  • Weight loss
  • Polyuria (increased urination )
  • Polydipsia (increased thirst )
  • Polyphagia (increased hunger )
  • Blurred vision
  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Slow healing of cuts and wounds

Type 2 diabetes mellitus – 

A condition where pancreas cells fail to respond properly, resulting in, lack of insulin develops in the body. this condition is known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus ( NIDDM) or types 2 diabetes. common causes are excessive body weight and lack of exercise. The most common is type 2 diabetes, usually in adults, which occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn't make enough insulin.

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes are:

Symptoms may be developed rapidly in type 1 diabetes, while type 2 diabetes symptoms develop slowly or absent.

Type 3-Gestational diabetes

When pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes, develop a high blood sugar level.

What is prediabetes?

Prediabetes  -Prediabetes is a condition where blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Many people who later develop type 2 diabetes mellitus spend many years in prediabetes.
Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) - is a condition where  type 1 diabetes mellitus develops in adults

Steroid diabetes -a condition where high doses of glucocorticoid drugs are introduced.

Symptoms of diabetes:
  1. Frequent urination,
  2. Increased thirst,
  3. Increased hunger.

What is the long term complication of diabetes?

All the forms of diabetes increased the risk of long term.these develop after many years (10- 20). but Long term complication is.
  • Damage to blood vessels,
  • Cardiovascular disease,
  • Coronary artery disease,
  • Macrovascular disease,
  • Stroke,
  • Peripheral artery disease.
  • Damage to eyes (diabetic retinopathy),
  • Damage to kidney (diabetic nephropathy),
  • Damage to the nerve (diabetic neuropathy),
  • The symptoms include numbness, tingling, pain, and pain sensation which can lead damage to the skin,
  • Diabetes-related foot problems diabetic foot ulcers may occur and difficult to treat.
  • Eye-Prolonged high blood glucose absorption, change the shape of the eye lens, resulting in vision change .long term vision loss caused by diabetic retinopathy.
  • Skin- number of rashes that can occur in diabetes is known as diabetic dermadromes.

Causes of diabetes mellitus: 
  • Some person, are caused by the body's tissue receptors not responding to insulin. this form is very uncommon. 
  • Genetic mutations (mitochondrial) can lead to defects in beta cell function. Abnormal insulin action may also have been genetically determined in some cases.
  •  Another disease that causes extensive damage to the pancreas may lead to diabetes e.g - chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis.
  • Diseases- associated with excessive secretion, of insulin-antagonistic hormones can cause diabetes. 
  • Many drugs impair, insulin secretion and some toxins damage pancreatic beta cells. 
  • malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus (MRDM or MMDM.

Insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose into the body. Insulin plays an important role in balancing glucose levels in the body. Insulin is released into the blood by beta cells, found in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin is used by about two-thirds of the body's cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as fuel, for conversion to other needed molecules, or for storage. Lower glucose levels result in decreased insulin release from the beta cells and decreased breakdown of glycogen to glucose. This process is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagon, which acts in the opposite manner to insulin.
If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or insulin resistance) then glucose will not be absorbed properly by the body cells that require it, and it will not be stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistently high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis. When the glucose concentration in the blood remains, high long time.

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