What is the burn? why need special care of severe burns

What is the burn? - Burns are damage to the skin and underlying tissue by heat, chemical electricity, or radiation. A burn damages the tissue by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or atomic radiation. The most common burning gets with hot objects such as fire, boiling water or milk, crackers, gases, and chemicals. 

The burn is very painful. Burns are identified by how deep they are and how large the area burns cover and depth in a large burn injury. Deep burn recovers very slowly, it is very difficult to cure, and usually the risk of complications such as infection and scarring.

Causes of burns

  1. dry flames - hot, metallic objects, etc,
  2. scalds - boiling water, steam, hot oil,
  3. cold - liquid nitrogen,
  4. chemical - strong acids and bases,
  5. electrical - contact with electricity,
  6. radiation - sun rays, lasers,
  7. nuclear burns - by nuclear radiation.

Types of burns :

First-degree burn - damages the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). The skin turns red and there is a burning sensation on skin.

Second-degree burning - damages the outer layer, and the layer below it (dermis). The skin may be needed to cover.

Third-degree burn - the third-degree burn, damages the epidermis, dermis, and hair follicles and sweat glands, and damage to the underlying tissues.

The fourth-degree burns - the fourth-degree burn damage the epidermis, dermis, hair follicle and sweat glands, underlying tissues, and fat.

The fifth-degree burns - the fifth-degree burns damage the epidermis, dermis, hair follicle and sweat glands, underlying tissues, fat and also damage the muscles,

The sixth-degree burns - damage the epidermis, dermis, hair follicle and sweat glands, underlying tissues, fat, and also damage the muscles, and bone.

Symptoms of burns

  1. difficulty in breathing,
  2. smoke around the nostrils or mouth,
  3. red and dry skin,
  4. blistering on the skin,
  5. burning sensation on the skin,
  6. pain on the skin,
  7. skin is charred and waxy.

Severe burning 

Severe burning causes serious problems in the body.  these problems have an inflammatory response to the body. A normal inflammatory response protects the body against foreign bodies, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, toxins. It is an active response to infection, injury. It is destroying the cause of the problem, prevent damage, and clean the dirt left by dead cells and other debris. But when it has to face large or deep burns, it can be higher, often making the injury more serious and damaging the vital organs systems.

There is a fluid loss which can cause a shock. The fluid trapped inside the body, which can cause swelling, which is known as edema. If tissues and organs do not get enough oxygen due to trauma, edema, then they suffer from damage and may fail.  Burns damage the skin's protective obstruction, which means that foreign invaders may sneeze. Burns also weaken the immune system, so the body is not able to fight against various infections.

Prevention of burns 

  1. avoid playing with a match stick, lighters, lit candle, etc,
  2. avoid touching hot objects,
  3. do not enter a burning building,
  4. be cautious around boiling water, steam, and hot oil,
  5. avoid exposure to liquid nitrogen,
  6. take caution while handling strong chemical or avoid exposure
  7. wear protection clothes and sunglasses when exposed to the sun,
  8. keep children away from anything that could potentially cause any burns,
  9. keep the fire extinguisher in the kitchen and car etc.

Treatment of burns

In a hospital, the doctor covers the burned area by using sterile bandages with antibiotics' skin cream or ointment.

For those third-degree burns and for some second-degree patients, patients need extra fluids to maintain blood pressure and to prevent shock. Surgeons treat large burns by removing the tissue and covering the burned wounds with a skin graft.

Action before the hospital admitted,

  1. if the victim is on the fire stop what he is doing, drop to the floor, and roll on the ground until the fire is put out,
  2. smother the victim with a blanket,
  3. switch off the power supply,
  4. calm and reassure the victim,
  5. clean the area gently with plenty of clean water,
  6. submerge the burnt area in cold water,
  7. if there is a chemical burn, flush the affected area with clean water or saline until advanced help arrives,
  8. If the victim does not breathe give it CPR.

People with minor irritation can be treated at home and local hospitals. People with more severe burns can be transferred to a hospital with a special burn unit.

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