Ad Code



What You Need to Know About Typhoid Fever: Tips from the WHO

Typhoid is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. it is rod-shaped gram-negative bacteria and very resistant to environmental conditions. thus it may alive for a long time in freshwater and food. the main source of the disease is the human carrier. the recovered victim may continue to harbor bacteria that are shed in the feces for a long time.

Causes of typhoid:

Contaminated sewage is another source. when it mixes with drinking water due to broken sewer lines or natural disasters, epidemics may occur. flies also transport bacteria from sewage to food or water. since the bacterium is acid-resistant it passes through the stomach and enters the small intestine, where it multiplies quickly.

The symptom of typhoid :

  1. deep ulcers,
  2. constipation,
  3. bloody stool,
  4. the fever rises gradually,
  5. skin covered with bright red rose spots,
  6. headache,
  7. nausea,
  8. loss of appetite,
  9. pain in the stomach.

Diagnosis of typhoid :

the organism identified by isolating it from urine, blood, stool, or bone marrow cultures. in 1896, Fernand Widal devised the Widal test, an agglutination method in which typhoid fever antibodies are detected by mixing the patient's serum with Salmonella cells and observed for clumping.
these days extracts of flagella or cellular antigens of bacterium rather than cells are used for this test.

Prevention :

Sanitation and hygiene are important to prevent typhoid. It can only spread in environments where human feces are able to come into contact with food or drinking water. Careful food preparation and washing of hands are crucial to prevent typhoid. 

Treatment of typhoid :

the disease was previously treated with chloramphenicol. a however resistant strain of bacteria has present amoxicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim have been substituted. other antibiotic drugs also used in typhoid fever, are Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, etc.

typhoid fever

Diseases like typhoid are caused by poor sanitation, impure water, and poor waste disposal.
  • Eat food without washing hands,
  • Intake of contaminated water,
  • Without washing vegetables and fruits,
  • Street food intake,
  • Consuming contaminated fruit juice can cause typhoid.
  • With personal hygiene, you can avoid many diseases including typhoid.

Foods that should be eaten in typhoid.

Typhoid is an intestinal infection. Therefore the digestive system remains very weak due to typhoid infection. At this time we need to eat easily digestible food. Which does not have to work very hard for the intestines to digest. as follows,
  • Semisolid food
  • Bananas,
  • avocados,
  • and oranges
  • Vegetable Soup,
  • Boiled eggs,
  • Clean water,
  • Milk,
  • Well cooked lentils like moong.
  • food that easy to digest.
  • plenty of clean water.

always avoid

  • Avoid eating fruit without washing;
  • Do not eat raw vegetables;
  • Do not eat too much salt and spicy food;
  • Avoid street food;
  • Do not eat undercooked fish and vegetables;
  • Do not use raw meat;
  • Do not drink contaminated water.

who recommends vaccine:

WHO recommends vaccination to control endemic typhoid fever and for outbreak control. Among the available typhoid vaccines, TCV is preferred at all ages in view of its improved immunological properties, suitability for use in younger children, and expected longer duration of protection. WHO further recommends that all typhoid fever vaccination programs should be implemented in the context of other efforts to control the disease, including health education, water quality, and sanitation improvements, and training of health professionals in diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), 
  2. Injectable unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine  ( Vi-PS vaccine)
  3. oral live-attenuated Ty21a vaccine in capsule form

Post a Comment


Ad Code